7. From Radiation Fields to Atmospheric Concentrations Retrieval of Geophysical Parameters

Fig. 7-1
Scheme of the relevant interactions of solar light with the Earth's atmosphere and surface. (graphics: DLR-IMF)
Fig. 7-2
The solar irradiance spectrum (red) and Earth radiance spectrum (blue) with a shape modified by absorption of trace gases and scattering in the atmosphere. (graphics: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen)
Fig. 7-3
Simulated vertical optical depth of the targeted constituents to be observed at 55° N around 10 a.m. The strong absorbers are plotted in the upper part and the relevant weak absorbers in the middle part. In the lower part the vertical optical depth due to Rayleigh scattering, aerosol extinction and absorption is given. Note the large dynamic range of the differential absorption structures used for retrieval of the constituents. (graphics: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen)
Fig. 7-4
The main steps of the DOAS retrieval. For further details see the text. (graphics: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen)
Fig. 7-5
Typical SCIAMACHY NO2 fit results from a measurement over a polluted area in China on January 15th, 2006. The red line is the scaled NO2 laboratory cross-section, the dashed blue line the result of the fit after subtraction of all contributions with the exception of NO2. (graphics: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen)
Fig. 7-6
One day of total ozone densities obtained with the TOSOMI algorithm. (image: KNMI/ESA )
Fig. 7-7
Earth reflectance spectra (sun normalised intensity) for various cloud and surface conditions. The inset shows the variation in the reflectance spectrum due to changes in the thermodynamic state of water from liquid water to ice. The large difference in the reflectance spectrum around 1600 nm is used to derive information on the thermodynamical state of water in clouds. (graphics: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen)
Fig. 7-8
Clouds over Europe on July 9th, 2005. Cloud coverage as seen in a RGB composite (right) from MODIS on-board TERRA and cloud fraction (left) determined with OCRA using SCIAMACHY PMD data (images: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen and Dundee Satellite Receiving Station)
Fig. 7-9
The top-of-atmosphere reflectance in the O2 A-band as a function of cloud top height. (graphics: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen)
Fig. 7-10
Saharan desert dust outbreak to the Atlantic on July 25th, 2004. Shown are the SCIAMACHY AAI at 9:15 UTC of that day overlaid on a MODIS RGB picture, acquired around 11:10 UTC (right side of the plot) and 12:50 UTC (left side of the plot). High SCIAMACHY AAI values coincide with the dust plume, visible as a yellow haze on the MODIS image. (image: M. de Graaf, KNMI)
Fig. 7-11
The principle of inversion for the retrieval of geophysical parameters. For further details see the text. (graphics: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen)
Fig. 7-12
Averaging kernels (left), weighting functions at 338.6 nm (middle), and theoretical precision (right) for BrO vertical profile retrievals from SCIAMACHY limb measurements. (graphics: IUP-IFE, University of Bremen)
Fig. 7-13
Mean tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over Europe as derived from SCIAMACHY for August to October 2005 with the DLR-DFD assimilation approach. (image: T. Erbertseder, DLR-DFD)
Fig. 7-14
A forecasted North Pole view of the assimilated total ozone column field for November 3rd, 2005 at 12:00 UTC based on SCIAMACHY data. (image: KNMI/ESA)

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