1. SCIAMACHY - The Need for Atmospheric Research from Space

Fig. 1-1
Atmospheric science spaceborne instruments and missions since 1970 with relevance for SCIAMACHY. The list of missions is not intended to be complete but to illustrate the progress in spaceborne instrumentation for atmospheric composition monitoring. (graphics: DLR-IMF)
Fig. 1-2
Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles for mid latitudes (US Standard Atmosphere).
Fig. 1-3
Interactions between human activity, atmospheric composition, chemical and physical processes and climate. (graphics: DLR-IMF, after WMO-IGACO 2004)
Fig. 1-4
The dominant physical and chemical processes determining the composition of the troposphere. (graphics: WMOIGACO 2004)
Fig. 1-5
Schematic sketch of the interactions between stratospheric ozone and other atmospheric constituents and processes. Anthropogenic emissions are shown in green while other factors affecting the climate system (e.g., volcanoes) are shown in beige. Red arrows indicate where one species or process affects another. Feedbacks are shown with bold purple lines. For example, decreasing polar stratospheric temperatures increase ozone depletion. Reduced ozone then causes stratospheric cooling, creating a positive feedback. (graphics after: NIWA)
Fig. 1-6
Global, annual mean radiative forcings (Wm-2) due to a number of agents for the period from pre-industrial (1750) to present (late 1990s; about 2000). The height of each box denotes a central or best estimate value while its absence indicates that no best estimate is possible. The vertical bars visualise an estimate of the uncertainty range, for the most part guided by the spread in the published values of the forcing. The uncertainty range specified here has no statistical basis and therefore differs from the use of the term elsewhere in this document. A ‘level of scientific understanding’ index is associated to each forcing, with high, medium, low and very low levels, respectively. (IPCC 2001)

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